Animation began almost 2,000 years ago star projector with a device called the Zoetrope. Now, fans can also enjoy animation in hand drawn, CGI preventing motion formats. From the beginning to new leading edge technology, this is actually the history of the genre.
Several countries across the world have contributed to the thought and invention of animation.
Zoetrope: the main Zoetrope in 180 AD, created by Ting Huan, from China, was an illusion that, when spun, made the photographs appear like they were moving; the current Zoetrope was founded by William George Harner from Britain in 1834 (see photo).
Magic lantern: Thaumatrope, 1824.
Flip book: patented by John Barns Linnet in 1868.
Mutoscope: in 1894.
Praxinescope: France 1877, created by Charles-Emile Reynaud who made the world’s first animated film which screened in Paris, France on October 28, 1892 along with his prototype of the current projector he called the Théâtre Optique system (invented in 1889).
However, before these early projectors, the 1st animation with the world goes to 5000 years ago, within present-day Iran (Persia), an animated earthen goblet, depicting a goat jumping to a tree to eat the leaves. Also, animation has become depicted in cave drawings.
Animation is divided into three categories: traditional animation (includes cel-animation), stop motion (includes claymation), and CGI (computer generated imagery). Even today, mainly because it was often carried out in earlier times, any one of them could possibly be congruently combined or perhaps used with live-action, e.g. ‘Who Framed Roger Rabbit’? (1988).
Traditional animation was at one time the most popular sort of animation, dating back earlier use of animation in films. Traditional, or classical animation mainly because it’s otherwise known as, originally consisted of hand-drawn images on each, single frame, such as background. Later, with all the invention of cel-animation, founded by Earl Hurd in 1914 (while employed at John Bray Studio), animation would progress further.
Cel-animation was a technique used in that the animated ink drawings were inked directly onto clear items of celluloid, each frame individually. Then, every bit of celluloid, one-by-one, was added to just one painted background and then photographed consecutively. Since this saved time, as the background didn’t have to be reproduced for each and every frame, other animation studios began copying this system. Today, traditional animation is performed digitally on the computer, with ‘digital ink’.
*Even though Earl Hurd, in 1914, invented the cel-animation technique, unfortunately, it turned out John Bray Studio who received the finance because of this innovative method. It was misfortunate that earlier animation studios didn’t credit their artists and just looked at fame and monetary gains for their own reasons.
Otto Messmer, ‘Felix the Cat’ creator, when utilised by the Pat Sullivan Studio, experienced the same unfairness as Hurd. Not once in his entire life did he receive recognition or perhaps monetary gain (Pat Sullivan made millions from Messmer’s creation). This also happened at the Walt Disney Studios; except Disney has been said to possess acknowledged his artists; however, Disney, like Pat Sullivan, received millions from his artists’ creations. For instance, it turned out Freddie Moore (Robert Fred Moore) who needs to have received people attention (when he was alive) for his innovative style towards realistic motion; this exceeded beyond the ‘rubber hose’ style with the day.
In stop motion animation, or stop-action, an item is slightly moved (object animation), then photographed, one frame at the same time. Clay animation (or ‘Claymation’ registered trademarked (1978) by Will Vinton) and pixilation, both initially first used in 1908. The U.S. clay animated film, produced by The Edison Manufacturing Co. (later known as Thomas A. Edison, Inc.) called ‘The Sculptor’s Welsh Rarebit Dream’ (1908) is the 1st known clay animation. ‘El hotel eléctrico’ (The Electric Hotel) (1908), a Spanish film produced by Segundo de Chomón, can be an early example with the use of pixilation.
There are other variations of stop motion techniques: go motion, stereoscopic, and CGI stop motion.
Go motion was first used in 1980 in ‘Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back’ and was created in order to provide a more realistic movement to the object(s) inside the frame. Since each object, when shot using stop motion, is in crisp clear focus within each frame (which doesn’t realistically represent movement to the human eye), go motion provided the mandatory effect to create a subject’s movement more life-like by creating motion blur. When shooting go motion, the topic, while being recorded, is moved. This creates motion blur. Although there are multiple ways to create a subject move while it’s being recorded, a proven way is with rods to regulate the object.
Stereoscopic (‘two’ images) animation describes 3-D animation. One way to create 3-D images with object animation is actually the use of a binary lens system (aka point-and-shoot stereo cameras), just one camera developed with two lens. Another way to produce 3-D images is with all the use of a computer and CGI applications.
CGI animation is a blend of computer generated imagery with animation techniques, and because with the advancements of computer technology and software, has become becoming the most preferred type of animation. The difference between CGI along with other varieties of animations is things are all manipulated with a computer, one frame at the same time. Each frame, after manipulation, has to be rendered, and due to this, a quick computer is important.
CGI initially started in earlier seventies with all the advancement of computer technology and software. However, it wasn’t until recently, with all the use of motion capture that CGI characters have grown to be a lot more realistic.
You don’t have to possess a fancy computer and tons of training to get going in animation. Learn to build your own stop motion movie.
“Film History.” Kristen Thompson, David Bordwell. 2003.
Image in “Beginning with the Art” from Wikimedia Commons